Martin Heidegger[ edit ] Martin Heidegger rejected the philosophical basis of the concepts of "subjectivity" and "objectivity" and asserted that similar grounding oppositions in logic ultimately refer to one another.
Ontological Issues What sorts of things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items and, as a consequence, items within specific languagesor are they non-linguistic items, or are they both?
In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i. Sentences are linguistic items: However, the term "sentence" has two senses: These three English sentence-tokens are all of the same sentence-type: Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun.
Sentence-tokens are concrete objects. They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of sounds, or patches of light on a computer monitor, etc. Sentence-tokens exist in space and time; they can be located in space and can be dated.
They are abstract Best essays postmodernism. Analogous distinctions can be made for letters, for words, for numerals, for musical notes on a stave, indeed for any symbols whatsoever. Might sentence-tokens be the bearers of truth-values? One reason to favor tokens over types is to solve the problems involving so-called "indexical" or "token reflexive" terms such as "I" and "here" and "now".
Is the claim expressed by the sentence-type "I like chocolate" true or false? Well, it depends on who "I" is referring to. If Jack, who likes chocolate, says "I like chocolate", then what he has said is true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says "I like chocolate", then what she has said is false.
If it were sentence-types which were the bearers of truth-values, then the sentence-type "I like chocolate" would be both true and false — an unacceptable contradiction. The contradiction is avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, for in this case although there is only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens.
A second reason for arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the bearers of truth-values has been advanced by nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to allow as few abstract objects as possible. Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the proper bearers of truth-values.
But the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems. One objection to the nominalist theory is that had there never been any language-users, then there would be no truths.
And the same objection can be leveled against arguing that it is beliefs that are the bearers of truth-values: And a second objection — to the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values — is that even though there are language-users, there are sentences that have never been uttered and never will be.Archival Science and Postmodernism: New Formulations for Old Concepts.
By TERRY COOK. This article is the first of a two-paper series. It was originally published in Archival Science, vol. 1, no. 1 (): , the International Journal on Recorded Information incorporating Archives and Museum Informatics and is published here with .
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