A generic term for computer equipment such as a hub, switch, router, or printer. This data typically includes a machine's IP address, which the server can change and allocate automatically on the fly under DHCP.
Introduction An operating system can be defined as a chief piece of software in the computer system that helps in managing the entire computer systems hardware and software such as every device, every processing time, systems users, and main memory.
The main functions of operating system are memory management where its memory manager checks the validity if each memory space request, processor management where its processor manager decides how to allocate the central processing unit, device management where it monitors, channels and controls every device, file management where it keeps track of all files in the system, and network management where it provides a convenient way for users to share resources and controls how users accesses resources.
Most commonly used operating systems are windows based operating system and Unix based operating systems. Inprocessor and Intel Pentium chips had been introduced where they provided power and features that could accommodate graphical user interface which could be used to interpose between DOS and users, and so Microsoft released Windows 3.
In Microsoft released Window NT 3. InMicrosoft released Windows which had added features such as active directory, the ability to handle more services and supported distribution processing.
In the yearMicrosoft released latest desktop version of windows called Windows XP which operated on both 32 and 64 bit machines. In windows vista was released which was an upgrade of windows XP in terms of performance and security.
InWindows 7 was released as an upgrade of windows vista where it provided speed, stability and minimal system requirements, which is currently used.
In the yearMicrosoft released windows 8 which have redesigned metro-style user interface, virtual hard disk, integrated antivirus, and other applications where as per now it is getting a lot of intention in the world of computers.
Then it was improved to support all computers as its operating system and also rewritten in C programming language as a high level language.
The UNIX developments went through various versions as it gained popularity until it Interactive System Corporation first made it commercial in UNIX was made available as source code which led to development of various UNIX systems Versions where users can choose his or her favorite version according to the preferred flavor, needs and system requirements.
Windows and UNIX based operating system development approaches Windows based operating system development approach can be defined as systematic where any version can be termed as an improvement of the various version either to cater for its deficiencies or due to introduction or improvement of technology.
For example, windows based operating system started with DOS 1. Unlike Windows based operating system development approach which is systematic, UNIX based operating system is asystematic due to the availability of source code at low prices or even free.
Key differences between GUI and CLI Graphical User Interface GUI can be defined as a type of interface that allows system users to interact with the operating system through the use of graphical objects representations such as images, audio and animations.
The user uses the mouse or keyboard to manipulate graphical objects directly by the actions that he or she performs. On the other hand, Command Line Interface CLI can be defined as interaction mechanism that allows user to type or input commands while interacting with the operating system using the text only interface and input from keyboard.
Other differences between GUI and CLI are; In terms of ease of use, GUI interaction mechanism is much easier for new users since mouse is used to operate, than the CLI interaction mechanism which is challenging to new users since it requires memorization and familiarity.
In terms of controls, CLI provides its users with more control of their operating system and file system unlike GUI where its users may need to use command line to complete various specific tasks.
In terms of multitasking, GUI offers its users with ease of viewing and manipulating tasks through windows, unlike CLI which do not offer various screens that assists its users with ease of viewing.
In terms of appearance, CLI remain constant which makes users to easily be familiar with the interface unlike GUI whose interface changes with versions hence making users take time to become familiar with interfaces of various versions.
HowWindows and UNIX based operating system manage their functions File management Windows based operating system used file managers in DOS, Windows 95 and Windows NT which was later upgraded to window explorer which used graphical interfaces where it allowed users to create, move, rename, print, copy, delete, and search file and directories.
Also, the windows explorer file manager allows administrative users to set file privileges or permissions such as read-only, archive, and hidden or system In Unix based operating system, files are managed according to their types, which is done by commands which are; Is command which lists the content of the directory, cd command which helps the user to move through the file system, and rm command for deleting a file among other many commands for manipulating and administering security to the files.
Process management Windows based operating system contains windows kernel which provides native process structures and services which allows the operating systems to manage process structure and functionality. In UNIX based operating system, process management is handled by its kernel since the processes based on this operating system are similar to classical sequential processes.
The kernel manages the processes since they run on single programs with single thread of control. In handling multiprogramming, UNIX allocates a process a quantum which is 0. Memory Management Windows based operating systems do use virtual memory manager to control how paging and memory allocation is done.
The window virtual address map allocates user an address space of bit where per process is allocated a memory of 4 Gbytes where the operating system takes a memory of 2Gbyte so that the remaining portion is shared by other processes.With a command-line operating system (e.g., DOS), you type a text command and the computer responds according to that command.
With a graphical user interface (GUI) operating system (e.g., Windows), you interact with the computer through a graphical interface with pictures and buttons by using the mouse and keyboard.
Linux is an open source, free to use operating system widely used for computer hardware and software, game development, tablet PCS, mainframes etc.
Unix is an operating system commonly used in internet servers, . ACL (Access Control List) A method of keeping in check the Internet traffic that attempts to flow through a given hub, router, firewall, or similar device.
Access control is often accomplished by creating a list specifying the IP addresses and/or ports from which permitted traffic can come. Because of the large number and variety of available Linux distributions, they are all grouped under a single entry; see comparison of Linux distributions for a detailed comparison.
There is also a variety of BSD and DOS operating systems, covered in comparison of BSD operating systems and comparison of DOS operating systems.
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Comparing Windows NT, Linux, and QNX as the Basis for Cluster Systems Several cluster systems are based on Windows NT, including the HPVM system  and Mil-lipede . Linux, like most Unix systems is monolithic, that is, the whole operating system is a single.