Physics experiment of force and equilibrium

Mechanics Mechanics is generally taken to mean the study of the motion of objects or their lack of motion under the action of given forces.

Physics experiment of force and equilibrium

For an example of an 'Open' EEI task sheet, click here. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels comprising a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material.

The Australian Government provides incentives for the use of PVs for both domestic and industrial use you can save money, and save the environment. Solar photovoltaics generates electricity in more than countries and, while yet comprising a tiny fraction of the GW total global power-generating capacity from all sources, is the fastest growing power-generation technology in the world.

Between andgrid-connected PV capacity increased at an annual average rate of 60 percent, to some 21 GW. A good EEI would be to measure current as a function of the angle of incidence of sunlight all within a short period of time eg 30 minutes ; measure current when collector is perpendicular to rays during the day how should that go?

But maybe you'll need to consider more than current; perhaps the power output is more important. If so, you could put a load on the circuit resistor and measure V and I. In the method shown below, Moreton Bay College students are measuring the effect of angle on the flow rate hence power output of a electrical water pump.

This was Year Energy output of a solar panel II You could also investigate the effect of shade on the output of a panel. In this photo, students are using layers 1, 2, 3 etc of shade cloth.

It would also be interesting to see the effect of light of different wavelength to see if the solar cells are sensitive to all wavelengths. You could use coloured cellophane - but then that reduces intensity and not all coloured cellophane has the same percentage transmission.

This limitation makes photovoltaic cells an unreliable source of power for unattended or remote devices, such as solar-powered traffic signs or NASA's Mars Rover.

For large-scale solar plants to maintain their maximum efficiency, the photovoltaic cells must be kept clean, which can be a challenging task in dusty environments.

Physics experiment of force and equilibrium

One good EEI would be to investigate the effect of dust on the solar panel. This is a harder EEI than the two above. It involves setting up a solar panel a short distance from an incandescent bulb eg 15 cm and adding controlled amounts of "dust" eg bentonite clay powder, fine sand, icing sugar to the face of the panel spread evenly.

It is a good idea to adjust the panel so it is working at maximum power. Do this by setting up the circuit on the left below, using either a variable resistor or fixed resistors that can be varied from 0 ohm to ohm.

Plot a graph next figure to see the maximum power point. Then add the bentonite 0. A good article is in Physics Education, V45, Septemberpage Solar panel output and temperature The output of a solar photo-voltaic PV panel changes during the day for two reasons: Here's what one user Cabel said on the Whirlpool Forum: I have 16 Suntech panels.

I don't have the actual voltage outputs vs temperatures, but comparing my best clear day since installation, Any cloud cover on these days seems to help output a lot also. I have got I also have black tiles but have a good 50mm gap between roof and panels so it should have reasonable airflow.

This suggests a good EEI. Then with constant illumination, you could put the PV panel on top of a hotplate and crank up the temperature. How high a temperature - well, you can decide. Alternatively, you could hold the temperature constant and vary the illumination. Year 12 student Ryan Phillips from Villanova College, Brisbane, used an electric bar heater in front of the solar panel.

The light stayed constant as the panel heated up and he got some interesting results see setup below. The power output VxI of a PV cell at different temperatures.

Ryan Phillips' setup at Villanova College. On the left is the bar heater with the Digitec yellow thermometer next to it.Free science and math simulations for teaching STEM topics, including physics, chemistry, biology, and math, from University of Colorado Boulder. A bicycle is a wonderful example of an object that's unstable at rest, but stable in motion.

My other favorite example is a broom balancing upside-down on the palm of your hand. gravity, and the force holding it up is called tension. For the object to be in equilibrium, the force due to gravity must be equal to the force of tension in the rope. Rutgers Physics News Chemistry Professor and member of our Graduate Faculty Wilma Olson has been named a Fellow of the American Physical Society by the Division of Biological Physics.

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The citation for Wilma reads: "For seminal contributions to understanding nucleic acid structure, properties, and interactions, for leadership in developing important computational methods used to analyze.

Physics Phenomena "Physics is Fun" (Feimer's Physics Page) Physics Dictionary. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. The Letter A: Absolute zero. Forces in Equilibrium If an object is neither moving through space (translating) nor rotating, it is said to be in static equilibrium.

The sum of the external forces acting on the object must be zero (recall forces add as vectors) ; and similarly the sum of the external torques must be zero.

Equilibrium and Statics