Patrick O'Hare Please, can we get some bad economic news? Is that too much to ask? That's not too much ask, it's just really dumb to ask for it.
Short bibliography Introduction The conventional wisdom, including statements by the U. Supreme Court, has academic freedom as a legal right, derived from the First Amendment to the U.
I believe that this conventional wisdom is wrong. I am not the only attorney holding this unconventional view.
The First Amendment protects academic freedom. This simple proposition stands explicit or implicit in numerous judicial opinions, often proclaimed in fervid rhetoric.
Attempts to understand the scope and foundation of a constitutional guarantee of academic freedom, however, generally result in paradox or confusion. The cases, shorn of panegyrics, are inconclusive, the promise of rhetoric reproached by the ambiguous realities of academic life.
The problems are fundamental: There has been no adequate analysis of what academic freedom the Constitution protects or of why it protects it.
Lacking definition or guiding principle, the doctrine floats in law, picking up decisions as a hull does barnacles. Academic freedom is an amorphous quasi-legal concept that is neither precisely defined nor convincingly justified from legal principles.
These two defects make the law of academic freedom difficult to understand. I have no doubt that academic freedom is important and desirable. In practice, the notion of academic freedom is invoked to justify statements by faculty that offend politicians, religious leaders, corporate executives, parents of students, and citizens.
History of academic freedom In medieval Europe, universities were self-governing enclaves that were outside the civil law. Some of this isolation survives today in poorly articulated views that universities are somehow immune from law.
Perhaps the fact that large universities have their own police department gives some support to the notion of independence. Regardless of whatever myths may circulate in academic communities, the same law applies to colleges and universities in the USA that applies to people in other settings in the USA.
The Prussian Constitution of declared that "science and its teaching shall be free. This kind of academic freedom has never been a major issue in the USA, owing to differences between the two countries: In Germany, there are no required classes for university students, and just one examination to obtain the Diplom degree.
In the USA, curriculum is rigidly controlled by faculty, and students must attend all of the required classes and a minimum number of "elective" classes, to qualify for a degree.
There is typically at least one examination in every class in the USA. The German constitution of 23 MayArt.
Americans during the 's who desired a doctoral degree typically went to Europe and studied at a university in England, France, or Germany. Other universities in the USA were soon founded along the same lines: During this time, older American institutions of higher education e.
Inthe newly formed American Association of University Professors issued their first report on academic freedom. Two kinds of academic freedom There are two distinctly different kinds of academic freedom, which should have distinct names: Individual academic freedom protects an individual professor.
Institutional academic freedom protects universities from interference by government, a right that applies to the community of scholars, not to individual faculty. The following people have commented on the problem of using "academic freedom" to mean two different concepts.
Judge Posner, writing for the unanimous panel of three judges in Piarowski v. Illinois Community College, F.History is a good place to look for answers. Five devastating slumps—starting with America’s first crash, in , and ending with the world’s biggest, in —highlight two big trends in.
Discuss the financial manager’s place in the corporation The place of the financial manager may vary significantly. In fact the generic nature of this job title and description can be misleading; hence it should be carefully scrutinized as the role can vary enormously depending .
FREE COURSE THE WORLD, THE JEWS AND THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN SURVIVAL Anti-Semitism, division, separation, violent conflicts and a general breakdown of the institutions of human society.
Role of Financial Manager.
Role of Financial Manager This Essay Role of Financial Manager and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on urbanagricultureinitiative.com Autor: review • December 18, • Essay • Words (3 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1). Role of Financial Managers The financial manager plays an important role in the functional areas of finance. The assignments of finance functions to the financial manager depend upon size of the business enterprise. Role of the Financial Manager Paper Introduction Shareholders own companies and are therefore entitled to a return on their investments when the companies are performing well. It becomes the financial managers ' role to ensure that shareholders are .
Role of the Financial Manager The role of the financial manager has changed drastically during recent years. Previously, financial managers were seen as the stewards of the organization, since they were responsible to ensure the accountability of all organizational assets and to generate accurate financial reports.
Role of Financial Managers The financial manager plays an important role in the functional areas of finance. The assignments of finance functions to the financial manager depend upon size of the business enterprise. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.